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  • EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN KORAPUT DISTRICT (ORISSA) -By Dr. B.Eswar Rao Patnaik

    By Dr. B.Eswar Rao Patnaik,

    Reader in Economics & H.O.D,

    S.B.R.G. Womens College, Berhampur.

     

    INTRODUCTION

     

                In rural area women perform a major part of agricultural operations like breaking clods of earth, manuring, weeding, transplanting, harvesting, threshing, winnowing & dairying. Bulk of the women share a two-fold burden one on the domestic front and the other on the economic front in the socio-cultural & economic development of the country. According to an I.L.O. estimation women perform two-thirds of worlds, work but receive less than one tenth of its income. It is no surprise that, the percentage of female headed households comes to 15% in Orissa and 8% in Koraput district. Scholars question discriminatory thinking of the twentieth century which consider women family bread winners as secondary workers or dependents because, they are housewives. In backward countries and poor states skilled jobs are sex-specific biased in favour of male persons.

     

    METHOD AND MATERIALS OF THE STUDY

    Viewed against this backdrop, the present paper aims at identifying some thrust areas for women entrepreneurs in kotpad  and jeypore blocks of Koraput district . The paper aims at analyzing plan performance for  uplift of the lot of women workers in the district. The basis of the study is simple Multi stage Random sampling Technique, for surveying 250 households in ten villages kotpad  and Jeypore blocks. The primary data  were supplemented by secondary data and Ph.D work of the current scholar. The scope of the study is limited to three areas a)Self employment opportunities. b) Asset provision to needy families and c) Wage Employment schemes like N.R.E.P & E.A.S for women workers.

     

     

    MEANING OF EMPOWERMENT

     

                The world Bank defines empowerment as the process of increasing the capacity  of individuals or groups to make choices and transform those choices into desired actions & outcome .Central to this process are actions which both build individual & collective assets & improve the efficiency & fairness of organizational & institutional context which govern the use of these assets .

     

     

    DEMOGRAPHIC   CHARACTERSTICK   OF   THE   REGION       

               

                The average size of population per households comes to 5 in study areas. The average size of population was 4 per a tribal family. Jeypore block has a population of 9939 out of which 49658 were females. Kotpad Block has 40625 male population and 40,395 female population.

     

    EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF WOMEN’S

     

    A person’s education can be important for getting job & expansion of incomes. Jeypore & Kotpad regions have registered a general literacy rate of 33.21% & 49.60% respectively (2001). The literacy performance of Females in study areas (20.12%) bags behind its district average and fails to catch up with other developed districts due to lamentably low literacy rate of tribals 22.31% (Male literacy rate 39.4%. I female literacy rate 10.21%).  

     

    Jeypore block is served by 112 primary schools & 207 teachers while, Kotpad block has 98 of primary schools & 202 teachers. Education can be a growth depressing factor because merely 4537 girl students were reading in Primary schools of Jeypore & the corresponding figure was 3690 for Kotpad block. Attendance rate  on the date of our visit to schools 04/03/07.

     

    Schools sans study materials sans, play grounds, and teacher absenteeism are attributable factors for the tragedy of lack of women enterprise in Koraput region.     (Refer to Table –I)

     

     

     

    TABLE-II

    Unfolding participation of women workers sector wise, in study areas of Koraput District (2007-08).

    Sl.no

    Occupational Break up

    Kotpad Block

    Jeypore Block

    Grand Total

    1

    Cultivators

    40

    30

    70

    2

    Agriculture laborers

    15

    20

    35

    3

    Transport

    0

    0

    0

    4

    Construction

    06

    06

    12

    5

    Mining

    0

    0

    0

    6

    Manufacturing

    05

    06

    11

    7

    Business

    03

    07

    10

    8

    a) Forest Produce

    b) Livestock Rearing

    10

    12

    11

    16

    21

    28

    9

    Services

    06

    06

    12

    Grand Total

    97

    102

    199

    Source : sample survey, 2007

     

    ANALYSIS OF THE OCCUPATIONAL BREAK-UP.

     

                There is substance in the argument that, the level of work a point of time is a sine-qua-non of the level of well being of a person. A worker is actively engaged in income earring actives for 18B days in a year. Data analysis study areas of the above talbe-2 reveals high work participation rate of females, namely 44 % (ie 199  out of 499 female population). In contrast the district has a staggering by high  proportion of worked (Males & Females) i.e 48,46 % compared with the state  average of 38.88 %.

     

                A glance at the table-II, reveals that, the number of female workers engaged in cultivation, agricultural labor, transport, construction, mining, manufacturing, business, forest produce and services in sample villages is 70,35,00,12,00,11,10,21, and 12 respectively.

     

                As per 2001 census, the percent take of cultivators and agricultural laborers in kotpad block comes to 27.20% & 50.75% respectively. The corresponding percentages were 21.90% & 41.97% in Jeypore region.

     

                The average income a female worker from cultivation of an are of land per annum was Rs. 2338-0 and an agricultural labor are used   to receive Rs. 870-0 for  stresses and staring of work.

     

                With  regard to wages paid for agricultural laborer, a male agricultural laborer used to receive Rs. 45 for a day’s work, while average wage rate for a female agricultural laborer  was Rs. 35. The lack of implementation of Minimum  wages act & Equal of remuneration act is a deterrent on empowerment of women. The national sample survey organization  has computed one women unit of work was was equal to only one-half unit of a male worker.In the recent past public action was directed to fix minimum wages for unskilled labor at Rs. 96.04 in Bhubaneswar  & Cuttack, while the corresponding figure stood at Rs. 94.04 in other pasts of the state.

     

    SELF-EMPLOYMENT AND AGRICULTURE

     

                The average size of land holding per cultivating family is 1.65 hectares in the tribal dominant district  . Factors like, small size of land holding, skewed land ownership  -employment of traditional tools & equipments, seasonal nature of employment in agricultureal , slender irrigation base of the economy (11.5%) and lack f entrepreneurship have accentuated the problem of abysmal poverty of rural women.

                The district is agriculturally backward due to limited use of fertilizers (7.7 kgs per hectare) and there is scope for enhancing per are yield of paddy from the current level of 22.63qtls per hectare.

     

                Analysts argue that, the gross income per acre of cultivated land is Rs.1000 at 1987 prices.  Minimum guaranteed prices announced prior to sowing season would go a long way in inducing women cultivators to assume risks in the adoption of  new techniques in cultivation. Direct purchase of Paddy & Ragi from cultivators by F.C.I may produce positive results on crop production.

     

    IMPACT OF WAGE EMPLOYMENT SCHMES

     

    The benefits of Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yaojana accrued to 40 families  under Land development scheme 15, families under Animal husbandry scheme and 10 families in business and handloom in Kotpad & Jeypor blocks. Bulk of the benefits were reaped by women. Nevertheless 72% of people work were poor.

        

                Much glamour was accorded to E.A.S & Sampoorna Gram Swarojarojgar Yojona but they failed to ensure people’s entitlements to decent living standards. Merely 16.68 wage employment days could be created per worker per annum against the target of creation of 100days of employment in a year (Orissa Development Report 2002. The average of the poor families covered under the scheme was nearly 15.80%.

     

    CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS

     

    Social sector development of the region reveals “Deprivation in well-being” of people. The high land region confirms to material deprivation due to lack of income & assets. Social deprivation (World  Development Report , 2000-2001) relates to deprivation of education and limited educational opportunities deprivation of health and poor access to health services. In Intellectual deprivation poverty of education & skills & social opportunities and limited scope of social mobility are included.

     

    There is scope for deepening the base of NFS for women & in Kotpad & Jeypore blocks in Rice & Flour mills, jute twine units , Printing press ,Bakery, Handloom, wooden furniture, Ready made garments, Rice Huller, Oil mills, Fruit processing units & Tile factory. To enhance the earning power of women cultivators, horticulture, sugarcane cultivation, vegetable production & production of Tea, coffee  & fruits may be encouraged. Micro Finance by Banks for self-help groups in viable economic activities like rope making, Basket Preparation, Pampad and Pickle  Preparation is an urgent necessity. Women have infinite capabilities in Animal husbandry and the present  number of 12 live stocks per household can be improved, given policy frame. Women’s entitlement to collect Minor Forest Produce lie Lac, Resin, Tamarind , Medicinal plants and gum should be enforced dedicatedly.

     

    Rural development programmes can not solve the problems of rural unemployment and poverty on a sustainable basis, as these programmes can provide some relief for a short period. Egalitarian reforms like land distribution to landless women, crop insurance , credit and marketing support may wipe out tears from women’s eyes.                    

     

    REFERENCES

    1.         P.C.Mohapatra & Eswar Rao Patnaik “How can we improve the Socio-economic conditions of women. A case study in koraput District, Yojana May 1998.

    2.         Eswar Rao Patnaik “Empowerment of Tribal women in Orissa Mahatma Gandhi Institute Of Research and Social Action Hydrabad 2007 (Page 112-122).

    3.         Economic survey 2004 Govt of Orissa.

    4.         Souvenir released by Pottamundai College on 2nd May 2007, sponsored by UGC relating to State Seminar On Women Enterprise & Employment Programmes in Orissa.    

     


    Contact Details:Dr. B.Eswar Rao Patnaik,Reader in Economics & H.O.D,S.B.R.G. Womens College, Berhampur

    Post Date:5/6/2007 11:50:40 AM Validity:36500 Days
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